Rights in Exile Programme

Refugee Legal Aid Information for Lawyers Representing Refugees Globally

Country of Origin Information Experts

Click here for our list of Country of Origin Experts

Country of Origin Information experts have achieved the years of academic and practical experience about a particular country that qualifies their COI information to provide supporting objective evidence on an individual claim for refugee status. Most of the  Country of Origin Information experts listed below have agreed to work pro bono for those non-governmental organizations (NGOs) which do not charge refugees for legal services and no funds for this purpose; other have said they work for a very reduced fee. Others do charge and we have tried to indicate this when this information was provided.

All of the recommended COI specialists we have listed have filed their curriculum vitae with us and have agreed to work on cases with legal advisers on a  confidential  basis. However, the Rights in Exile Programme cannot assume responsibility for the quality of their work. 

Please see the training document on "Researching Country of Origin Information" that could be useful to those academics having little experience in writing declarations on behalf of asylum seekers. It includes all the relevant refugee laws for those of you who may need background on the 1951 Convention and other legal matters pertinent to refugees. There are also links to declarations or expert opinions published by various organisations that you can easily access. You can find the document and download it as a pdf file here.

Lawyers representing refugee claims should first write about the case to the persons listed on the country pages to ensure their expertise is relevant to your case and to give them time and sufficient information about a case for them to agree with you on their working arrangements. We do not have COI specialists for all countries. Should you be willing to be a COI specialist, please contact us.

There are other data bases of COI experts and sources of advice on writing such expert reports.


Asylos: Country of Origin Research for Lawyers and NGOs supporting asylum seekers in Europe

Asylos is a pan-European network of volunteers who research information to enable asylum seekers to claim their right to international protection. Each volunteer donates at least two hours per week to look for the facts that can prove asylum seekers face persecution in their home country or which can support the credibility of their testimony.

Founded in 2010, Asylos prepares on-demand and free of charge research reports  for lawyers and NGOs in Europe, with a focus on requests from Belgium, France, Greece and the UK. The reports are based on public sources and on testimonies of experts in the field. They may be used in any stage of the asylum procedure.

To request information for an asylum claim or to consult existing reports, please visit http://asylos.eu/resources-for-lawyers/.

Asylos is registered as a charity with the Charity Commission of England and Wales (registration no 1158386). The network is coordinated by a secretariat based in Brussels and a consultant in London.


Rights in Exile Guide to Writing COI Expert Witness Reports

This a guide that will review the legal elements of claiming asylum under the 1951 Geneva Convention, explains how a country of origin information (COI) expert affadavit helps to support these elements, and provides guidelines for drafting such expert affidavits. It is important to bear in mind that each case will have different requirements, particularly concerning the expert opinion you provide, and we highly recommend discussing the case first with the lawyer representing the asylum seekers to ensure that your affadavit is sufficiently tailored to the particulars of the case. 

Expert Country Evidence in Asylum and Immigration Cases in the UK: Best Practice Guide

The ‘Expert Country Evidence in Asylum and Immigration Cases in the United Kingdom: Best Practice Guide’ provides advice on how to write effective reports that meet the expert witness’s obligations. It outlines the process of writing the report and the expert’s role, explains how to meet the expectations and requirements of the legal process in order to best assist the Court or Tribunal, lists some common dos and don’ts, discusses the structure and format of an expert report, and touches on the topics of oral evidence and fees. While designed for COI experts in the UK, we believe all would benefit.

European Country of Origin Information Network

The European Country of Origin Information network provides Country of Origin Information for all the main countries from which refugees originate. Whilst it does not offer the specialised expertise required in individual cases, it gives solid background information and is a useful starting point.

COI PORTAL Beta version

EASO is pleased to announce the launch of the new COI Portal Beta version

Now accessible to the public with the aim to increase COI transparency for all asylum practitioners, including civil society, this platform has been redesigned to provide attractive and up-to-date interfaces and improved search capabilities. Re-focused as a specialist application, the EASO COI Portal delivers COI authored by national asylum administrations from EU Member States, Norway and Switzerland, EASO and EU institutions (EU External Action Service, European Parliament, etc.).

This beta version allows users to search for COI from different sources, in different languages and to be regularly informed of COI publications or events. Additional features – such as country or topic specific alerts, country overview pages, and dedicated collaboration spaces for the EASO COI Specialists Networks – will be added progressively throughout the year 2016. For non-English documents, more English abstracts will be provided in the future, allowing the users to identify relevant information. Visit the EASO COI Portal at:https://coi.easo.europa.eu/

Amnesty International: Annual Report 2012


Amnesty International is a global movement of more than 3 million supporters, members and activists in more than 150 countries and territories who campaign to end grave abuses of human rights. Our vision is for every person to enjoy all the rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights standards. We are independent of any government, political ideology, economic interest or religion and are funded mainly by our membership and public donations.

The report contains updated country information and reveals that failed leadership has gone global in 2011. What emerged during a year of unrest, transition and conflict was the singular failure  of leadership at the national and international level. Officials of repressive governments who dismiss the concept of the universality of human rights and argue that human rights are western values being imposed on them have had their arguments laid bare. Leaders must understand the imperative to build and maintain a system that protects the powerless and restrains the powerful.

Asylum Research Centre (ARC)

Email: infoatasylumresearchcentre [dot] org

Contact persons: Liz Williams and Stephanie Huber

Asylum Research Centre (ARC) provides a country of origin information (COI) research service including country reports to support individual asylum claims for use in representations to refugee decision making bodies. Its case-specific research service is primarily fee-paying, but ARC may be able to undertake pro bono research for NGOs with limited funds who provide free services to refugees.

ARC also provides country specific and thematic COI research for UNHCR, publishes commentaries on UK Home Office Country Policy and Information Notes (CPINS), and on European Asylum Support Office's (EASO) COI reports. ARC also undertakes research consultancy, project management and training to the asylum, immigration and human rights sector.

ARC further manages the international COI Forum which provides a platform for COI researchers and practitioners to share publications and ideas on COI research and sources. ARC also provides a free bi-monthly COI Update, which contains notifications of new Home Office COI publications as well as recent publications and developments in the top countries of origin of asylum seekers in the UK.

Austrian Centre for Country of Origin and Asylum Research and Documentation – Austrian Red Cross


ACCORD provides independently, neutrally and objectively researched information on countries of origin of asylumseekers. The use of a comprehensive selection of sources ensures balanced and corroborated information. ACCORD continuously document human rights developments focusing on the criteria of the 1951 Geneva Refugee Convention and other legal instruments providing international protection. Their database is thus a focal point for asylum relevant and up-to-date material. ACCORD offers responses to case related queries, www.ecoi.net and a COI training manual.

Center for Gender & Refugee Studies (CGRS)


200 McAllister Street
San Francisco, CA 94102
Tel: (415) 581-8836
Fax: (415) 581-8824

The Center for Gender & Refugee Studies (CGRS) has resources for women seeking asylum on account of domestic violence, including country conditions information on DV in Honduras and an expert declaration on DV in Honduras. If you would like to receive a copy of this information, please fill out a request for information on our website and we will respond shortly.

We provide all resources at no cost.

We have country conditions information and advisory materials for a number of other countries and topics, especially information regarding gender-based violence, persecution of LGBT individuals, and children.

We cover anywhere and everywhere, although our resources regarding domestic violence and violence against women in Mexico and Central America are the most extensive.

We have information packets for over 100 countries and with 4-6 weeks’ notice are happy to produce new packets for specific cases concerning gender, LGBT, or children’s issues. In addition to those packets, we have general expert declarations regarding DV in Mexico, violence against indigenous women in Mexico, DV in Guatemala, DV in Honduras, DV in El Salvador, violence against women generally in El Salvador, one on FGC generally, and one on incest.

If you have a case for which you are in need of assistance, please feel free to submit a request at the above URL and we will share with you anything that may be of help.


The COI Forum is a free online tool for all COI researchers and users of COI working in refugee status determination to share publications and ideas on COI research and sources, to post any COI (research) related questions for other members to answer, as well as to develop shared resources. The COI Forum is open to all organisations and individuals, subject to approval by the COI Forum moderators, but is a confidential private discussion group only for the use of its members.

The COI Forum is moderated by Asylum Research Centre (ARC). It is part of the ecoi.net community platform.

To find out more about the governance of the COI Forum and to register for free please follow the steps explained here:

Electronic Immigration Network 


The Electronic Immigration Network [EIN] provides information on UK immigration and refugee law. The site comprises of two main areas: the Public Site (free) and the Members’ Site (at a charge). The Public Site gives access to country of origin experts, news and information on the latest legislation and most recent case law, event listings and a general resources list which links to related sites.

The directory of Country of Origin Experts is available here: http://www.ein.org.uk/experts/country.shtml. It is accessible to all. However, we have no way of knowing if these listed experts are willing to do this work without charge. You should contact them directly and explain your situation where you are unable to pay.

The Members’ Site (fee-paying) contains case law, legislation, updates on policy
and practice, information on events, job information and bulletin boards that enable users to consult with and contact fellow practitioners. A forum allows access to immigration and asylum-related decisions from the AIT up to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg.

Human Rights Watch


Human Rights Watch is a nonprofit, nongovernmental human rights organization made up of more than 280 staff members around the globe. Its staff consists of human rights professionals including country experts, lawyers, journalists, and academics of diverse backgrounds and nationalities.

Established in 1978, Human Rights Watch is known for its accurate fact-finding, impartial reporting, effective use of media, and targeted advocacy, often in partnership with local human rights groups. Each year, Human Rights Watch publishes more than 100 reports and briefings on human rights conditions in some 90 countries, generating extensive coverage in local and international media.

Its publications include country reports, as well as an annual World Reports. Annual World Report summarize human rights conditions in more than 90 countries and territories worldwide in each year. To view the 2015 HRW report click here. The report's web site provides access to individual country chapters, as well as an introduction on "Tyranny’s False Comfort: Why Rights aren’t Wrong in Tough Times," three thematic essays, and three photo collections. Previous editions of the World Report are available here.

Human Rights Watch Reports on country conditions are persuasive. To sign up for the Newsletter, please click here to receive regular updates. HRW has offices in: New York, Amsterdam, Beirut, Berlin, Brussels, Chicago, Geneva, Johannesburg, London, Los Angeles, Nairobi, Paris, San Francisco, Sydney, Tokyo, Toronto, Washington D.C. and Zürich.

International Crisis Group


The International Crisis Group is an independent, non-profit, non-governmental organisation committed to preventing and resolving deadly conflict. They provide regular and reliable updates and reports on countries in conflict situations. It is also available in French and in Arabic and some reports are available in other languages.


RefWorld is the leading source of information necessary for taking quality decisions on refugee status. Refworld contains a vast collection of reports relating to situations in countries of origin, policy documents and positions, and documents relating to international and national legal frameworks. The information has been carefully selected and compiled from UNHCR's global network of field offices, Governments, international, regional and non-governmental organizations, academic institutions and judicial bodies.

Still Human Still Here

17-25 New Inn Yard, London EC2A 3EA
Tel: 020 7033 1600
E-mail: mike [dot] kayeatamnesty [dot] org [dot] uk

Still Human Still Here is a broad coalition of organisations that are campaigning together to bring to an end the destitution of refused asylum seekers in the UK by improving the quality of the decision making process, extending asylum support and healthcare until the time of departure from the UK or their grant of leave to remain and granting asylum seekers permission to work if their cases have not been resolved in six months or if they have been refused but cannot be returned through no fault of their own.

The resource section contains the latest briefings and reports from the asylum sector including commentaries on UKBA COI Operational Guidance Notes. These commentaries aim to be a tool to allow legal representatives to identify relevant country of origin information and point to potential inaccuracies and inconsistencies in the use of country of origin information and case law in the OGNs.

The European Country of Origin Information Network


The European Country of Origin Information Network collects information on the situation in countries of origin of asylum seekers with a focus on the needs of asylum lawyers, refugee counsels and persons deciding on claims for asylum and other forms of international protection. Since February 2008, the search engine on ecoi.net automatically includes English and German synonyms and near synonyms of search terms.

Le site www.ecoi.net du Réseau européen d’information sur les pays d’origine, a une nouvelle interface de recherche.
El sitio www.ecoi.net de la Red europea de informaciones sobre los países de originen, a un novel interface de búsqueda.

The Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada


The IRB has a wealth of material on their website on all manner of things dealing with their work, including Research and Country of Origin Information. At present, they are redesigning their online research applications but eventually these will be freely available to all. They have a number of offices accross Canada and can be contacted infoatirb-cisr [dot] gc [dot] ca (via Email).

UK Border Agency’s Country of Origin Information Service


The Country of Origin Information Service (COI Service) provides up-to-date, sourced, independently reviewed information on asylum seekers' countries of origin. Sources include UN reports, human rights reports, various media bodies and information from specialist country officers, amongst others. COI material produced by UKBA is reviewed by the independent Advisory Group on Country Information (IAGCI). If you have any comments or suggestions on any COI Service products, you can send them to:UKBApublicenquiries[at]ukba.gsi.gov.uk.

Do consult Asylum Research Consultancy ( www.asylumresearchconsultancy.com ) for critiques of UK Border Agency's COI report and beware, UK Border Agency's report often are out-of-date as are many such sources.

US Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2014 (US Department of State)

http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper (When the page loads go to pull down menu 'Countries/Regions' and select a country)

The Country Reports on Human Rights Practices highlight the continued pursuit of "free and equal dignity in human rights" in every corner of the world. Based on factual reporting from our embassies and posts abroad, these Congressionally mandated reports chronicle human rights conditions in almost 200 countries and territories. The reports draw attention to the growing challenges facing individuals and organizations as governments around the world fall short of their obligation to uphold universal human rights. 

The 2010 Report can be found here. 

Country of Origin Experts listed by Country